Have you ever wonder where diamonds come from or how diamonds are created? A diamond is the oldest thing you will ever own, a diamond is the symbol of love and is the purest gemstone. Diamonds are eternal and a diamond is Forever.
Diamonds are a mineral, a natural crystalline substance, the transparent form of pure carbon or nearly pure carbon. Diamonds have extraordinary qualities. Diamonds have a broad colour range, high refraction, high dispersion of fire, very low reactivity to chemicals, rarity, and of course, extreme hardness and durability. Diamonds are known as the “king of gems” they glitter, dazzle, and symbolize purity and strength.
A diamond is the oldest thing you will ever be able to own, probably about 3 billion years in age and two thirds the age of the Earth. A diamond is a strategic and high-tech super material for our technological society. Diamond is the birth stone for the month of April. A diamond is composed of the single element carbon, and it is the arrangement of the C atoms in the lattice that give a diamond its amazing properties. Both diamond and graphite are composed of just carbon. However a diamond is the hardest known material and graphite is one of the softest known materials, this was caused by a rearrangement of the way a diamonds atoms are bonded together. Diamond carbon atoms are linked in a regular three-dimensional lattice with a repeating or crystalline pattern.
Natural diamonds are formed deep within the Earth’s mantle layer from the element carbon, about 180km below the surface, where high temperatures and pressures exist. Some diamonds form at depths of 300-400 kilometres, or even deeper, but these diamonds are particularly rare. The earths mantel is made up of molten rock, metals and other materials. The temperature is very high at this depth – between 1100 degC and 1400 degC. The high pressures needed to form diamonds are produced by the weight of 180 km of rocks pressing down. Besides carbon, there are very small amounts of other substances, such as nitrogen and sulfur that can become trapped in the crystal when it is formed in the mantel. These impurities can give color to the diamond. One of the most rare is pink diamonds. Natural diamonds are classified by the type and level of impurities found within them.
The word “diamond” comes from the Greek word “adamas” meaning unconquerable, in reference to the eternity of love. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave a diamond ring to Mary of Burgundy, thus, starting the tradition of diamond engagement rings. The reason a woman wears an engagement ring on her third finger of her left hand dates back to the Egyptian belief that the vena amoris (vein of love) ran directly from the heart to the top of that finger.
Many of the rarest diamonds occur by rare accidents of nature in shades of pink, blue, green, amber, or even red. These diamonds are referred to as “Fancy” diamonds and are evaluated by a different set of color standards. Fancy coloured diamonds such as red, pink, blue, green and purple are the most expensive due to their extreme rarity.
It is the only gem mineral composed of a single element making it the purest of earth’s gemstones. Therefore it is fitting that the purest and most brilliant of all the world’s gemstones make the diamond engagement ring the perfect symbol of eternal love.